Cullen, Julie Berry, Steven D. Levitt, Erin Robertson, and Sally Sadoff. 2013. "What Can Be Done to Improve Struggling High Schools?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(2): 133-52. DOI: 10.1257/jep.27.2.133
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Accountability in education requires three elements: “(1) explicit, publicized standards, (2) regular testing against those standards, and (3) consequences linked to performance” (Kress, Zechman, & Schmitten, 2011, p. 185). Accountability is complex, and the literature offers both benefits and complaints.
Advocates of accountability argue, “If you can’t show us results on our terms, then you are failing and should suffer consequences“ (Senechal, 2013, p. 49).