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APA Citation Style Guide


Article on a Website

Biello, D. (2007). 10 solutions for climate change: Ten possibilities for staving off catastrophic climate change. Retrieved 23 November 2012, from

Entire Website

Karayannakos, E. (2011). Retrieved 20 November 2012, from

Blog Post

Scarborough, J. (2012). Campaigns looks past the polls. Retrieved 20 November 2012, 2012, from


Real_ESPNLeBrun.  (2012, November 17).  NYC is where NHL and NHLPA will resume talks Monday [Twitter Post].  Retrieved from

Film Recording

Power and control : Domestic violence in america. Cohn, P. (Director). (2010).[Video/DVD] Harriman, NY: New Day Films.

Film from a Database

Films Media Group. (1998). Harold Pinter: Landscape [H.264]. Retrieved from

Film from a Website

Anderson, PT. (Director).  (2002).   Punch-Drunk Love [Video].  New Line.  Retrieved September 5, 2012, from

Film clip from a Website

Hungrybear9562 (Producer). (2010, January 8).  Yosemitebear Mountain Giant Double Rainbow 1-8-10 [Video].  Retrieved from

Musical Recording

Gershwin, G. (1990). An american in paris: Original MGM soundtrack. New York: CBS Special Products.

Music from a Database

Beethoven, Ludwig van. [Recorded by Gerhard Oppitz].  Beethoven: Piano Sonatas, Vol 2 [Streaming Audio].  Holzgerlingen:  Hanssler Classic [2005].  Retrieved from Classical Music Library.

Original Photograph/Art Work

Velazquez, D. (1656).  Las Meninas [Painting]. Madrid: Museo del Prado.

Photograph/Art Work in Print

Gris, Jaun. (1921).  Le Canigou, [painting]  From Masterworks at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery (pg. 119).  edited by Karen Lee Spaulding, 1999, New York: Hudson Hills Press.

Photograph/Art Work from a Website

Munch, E. (1910).  The Scream [Online Image].  Retrieved from

Photograph/Art Work from a Database

Hopper, E (1929).  Chop Suey [Online Image].  Retrieved from


If you have more than one resource by the same author, arrange the items in chronological order beginning with the earliest publication.

If an author is listed as a single author and then also listed as the first author on another work with multiple authors, list the single authorship entries first.

Entries with the same first author but different subsequent authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first different author.  

If you can’t find a  publication date, use the abbreviation “n.d.” in the place of the date.

Example: Karayannakos, E. (n.d.). Retrieved 20 Nov 2012, 2012, from

If you can not find the last date a web page is updated on you can still figure it out by entering the following text in the URL address bar:
javascript:alert(document.lastModified). (You may need to manual type javascript: if you paste the text into the address bar.)

This will bring up a pop-up box showing the last date the web page was updated on.

Update Date

NOTE: Some sites update everyday.  This may not be an indicator of when new content was added to the site.