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APA Citation Style Guide


Webpage with individual author

Giovanetti, F. (2019, November 16). Why we are so obsessed with personality types. Medium.

Webpage with continual content updates (include retrieval date)

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from

Blog post

Rutledge, P. (2019 , March 11). The upside of social media. The Media Psychology Blog.



Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it’s difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Film Recording

Power and control : Domestic violence in America. Cohn, P. (Director). (2010).[Video/DVD]  New Day Films.

Film from a Database

Films Media Group. (1998). Harold Pinter: Landscape [H.264].

YouTube Clip

Above The Noise. (2017, October 18). Can procrastination be a good thing? [Video]. YouTube. 

Musical Recording

Gershwin, G. (1990). An American in Paris: Original MGM soundtrack. CBS Special Products.

Original Photograph/Art Work

Velazquez, D. (1656).  Las Meninas [Painting]. Madrid: Museo del Prado.

Photograph/Art Work in Print

Gris, Jaun. (1921).  Le Canigou, [painting]  From Masterworks at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery (pg. 119).  edited by Karen Lee Spaulding, 1999, Hudson Hills Press.

Photograph/Art Work from a Website

Munch, E. (1910).  The Scream [Painting]. The Munch Museum, Oslo, Norway.

Photograph/Art Work from a Database

Edward Hopper. (1929). Chop Suey. [Painting].


If you have more than one resource by the same author, arrange the items in chronological order beginning with the earliest publication.

If an author is listed as a single author and then also listed as the first author on another work with multiple authors, list the single authorship entries first.

Entries with the same first author but different subsequent authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the first different author.  

If you can’t find a  publication date, use the abbreviation “n.d.” in the place of the date.

Example: Karayannakos, E. (n.d.). Retrieved 20 Nov 2012, 2012, from

If you can not find the last date a web page is updated on you can still figure it out by entering the following text in the URL address bar:
javascript:alert(document.lastModified). (You may need to manual type javascript: if you paste the text into the address bar.)

This will bring up a pop-up box showing the last date the web page was updated on.

Update Date

NOTE: Some sites update everyday.  This may not be an indicator of when new content was added to the site.